This dilution refrigerator is ideal for applications requiring high cooling power and enhanced experimental access such as Quantum computing.

  • Achieves more than 400 µW of cooling power ideal for demanding experiments with high heat dissipation such as microwave cavity losses
  • Less than 7 mK stable temperature: ideal for low temperature demagnetisation experiments
  • Additional line-of-sight access ports enabling a range of services to the IVC and sample space for the most demanding applications

Improved experimental access with inserts which provide a wide range of access ports.  This dilution refrigerator can also be integrated into a helium recondensing dewar to minimise helium consumption.

Specifications

Base temperature ≤ 7 mK
Base temperature stability ± 1 mK
Maximum temperature 1 K
Continuous operation Standard
Sample environment Vacuum
Cooling power at 100 mK ≥ 400 µW
Cooling power at 120 mK ≥ 580 µW
Sliding seal assembly Included
3He/4He mixture Optional
Experimental access

Ports 1,2,3: Line of sight to sample space, 38 mm dia. to mixing chamber

Ports 4,5,6,7: 12.7 mm ports from the 4K helium bath to the IVC, 2x fitted with tubes between top plate and IVC and 2 x fitted with demountable solder caps. 

 

System Components/Options

Automation and control of your dilution refrigerator using the KelvinoxIGH - Intelligent Gas Handling system:

All systems are delivered with a KelvinoxIGH which is a fully automated system which enables complete operation of a dilution refrigerator using sophisticated software and virtual instrument drivers for National Instruments'LabVIEWTM.

Options:

  • PT100: 24-way copper/constantan  loom wired to the mixing chamber
  • PT200 : 2 x S1 co-axial cables wired to the mixing chamber
  • PT210 : 4 x S1 co-axial cables wired to the mixing chamber
  • PT300 : 2 x UT85-SS-SS coaxial cables wired to the mixing chamber
  • CAPV/CAP : Capillary line with or without valve
  • KELMSWR : Swedish rotator - manual
  • KELMSRWA : Swedish rotator - automatic
  • LE100 : LECSH low eddy current sample holder
  • CS100 : ROTH1, 30 point calibrated RuO2 sensor to 50 mK
  • CS200 : ROTH2, generic calibration RuO2 sensor
  • RB100 : AVS47 resistance bridge with rf filtering, cables & IEEE interface
  • TS530 : Temperature controller for use with AVS47 resistance bridge
  • IPC : Isobus Picobus converter
  • HTC: Helium cold trap
  • Transfer tubes
  • MSTM400HA : tail to suit 52 mm cold superconducting magnet
  • HE3F : 3He flow meter
  • BK100 : Bucket IVC
  • VIN : Valves in pumping lines

 

Operation

 

When a mixture of 3He and 4He is cooled below 870 mK, it separates into two phases. The lighter 'concentrated phase' is rich in 3He and the heavier 'dilute phase' is rich in 4He. The concentration of 3He in each phase depends upon the temperature. Since the enthalpy of the 3He in the two phases is different, it is possible to obtain cooling by evaporating the 3He from the concentrated phase into the dilute phase.

These concentrated and dilute phases separate and a phase boundary established in the mixing chamber, where the cooling process takes place.

To establish continuous cooling one must promote the flow of 3He across the phase boundary in a continuous process. This is achieved by raising the temperature of the dilute phase to ~700 mK outside of the mixing chamber in the still. The vapour pressure of 3He at this temperature is two orders of magnitude higher than that of 4He allowing 3He to be preferentially pumped using external room temperature mechanical pumps or charcoal sorption pumps. This exhausted 3He can be returned to the system, condensed on the 1K pot, pre-cooled at the still and then further cooled through heat exchange with the exiting stream using a continuous heat exchanger ~150 mK and a series of silver sinter step heat exchangers from 100 mK to 20 mK, before being reintroduced to the mixing chamber to continue the process.

To protect the cooling platform from heating the dilution unit and 1K pot are housed in a vacuum with a radiation shield from either the still or 100 mK cold plate that surrounds the heat exchangers and sample space below the mixing chamber.

With careful design temperatures below 5 mK are achievable with a dilution refrigerator.

Access to the sample :

Gaining access to the sample is made by removing the insert from the cryostat, warming it to room temperature and removing the inner vacuum chamber (IVC) tail to gain access to the mixing chamber base.  Samples are typically mounted on the mixing chamber or on a sample holder fixed to the mixing chamber.  To shorten the turnaround time a sliding seal may be fitted to allow rapid pre-cooling of refrigerator insert and minimising the loss of 4He.

Applications

Research areas

Applications

Experimental techniques
Semiconductors Quantum Hall Effect
Quantum dots
Single electron tunneling
Quantum computing
Magneto-resistance
Hall effect
RF transport
High frequency conductivity
Solid State Physics Heavy fermions systems
Metal insulator transition
Spin glass
Mesoscopic systems
Giant magnetic resistance
Specific heat
DeHaas-van Alphen Oscillations
Solid state NMR
Electrical resistivity
Magneto-resistance
Neutron scattering
Superconductivity Low Tc superconductors
Quantum computing  
Josephson junctions
Flux vortices
Quantum initial phenomena
Electrical resistivity
Scanning spectroscopy(STM/AFM)
Squids
AC susceptibility
Astrophysics & Cosmology Low temperature detectors Superconducting tunnel junctions
Ge bolometers
Electrothermal measurements
Voltage biased measurements
Low energy photon detection
Metrology Quantum Hall Effect
Voltage standards
Current standards
Magneto-resistance
DC & AC low frequency transport and magnetic measurements
Single electron tunneling

 

Downloads & Further Information

 

To download our Kelvinox product guide click here

To download our Kelvinox specification sheet click here

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