UV / Visible spectroscopy: Experiments at low temperatures reveal the interaction between the electronic energy levels and vibrational modes in solids.

Infrared spectroscopy : Low temperature IR spectroscopy is used to measure changes in interatomic vibrational modes as well as other phenomena such as the energy gap in a superconductor below its transition temperature.

Raman spectroscopy : Lower temperatures result in narrower lines associated with the observed Raman excitations.

Photoluminescence : At low temperatures, spectral features are sharper and more intense, thereby increasing the amount of information available.

Case study:

Dr Martin Kemerink and Mr Hans Gommans at the University of Eindhoven (Netherlands) are using the OptistatCF-V2 to conduct I-V characterisation and admittance spectroscopy on plastic solar cells. More specifically, their aim is to determine the electron and hole mobilities in these condensed organic blends at various temperatures in order to pinpoint the physical origin of conduction.