UV/Visible spectroscopy: Experiments at low temperatures reveal the interaction between the electronic energy levels and vibrational modes in solids.

Infrared spectroscopy: Low temperature IR spectroscopy is used to measure changes in interatomic vibrational modes as well as other phenomena such as the energy gap in a superconductor below its transition temperature.

Raman spectroscopy: Lower temperatures result in narrower lines associated with the observed Raman excitations.

Photoluminescence: At low temperatures, spectral features are sharper and more intense, thereby increasing the amount of information available.

Case study: Dr Handong Sun from the Institute of Photonics  (Glasgow) is using the OptistatCF2 to perform experiments of photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra from 5 K to 300 K on dilute nitrides of III-V semiconductors and related nanostructures. The aim is to elucidate the electronic states and PL mechanisms in this novel material system.