UV / Visible spectroscopy: Experiments at low temperatures reveal the interaction between the electronic energy levels and vibrational modes in solids.

Infrared spectroscopy: Low temperature IR spectroscopy is used to measure changes in interatomic vibrational modes as well as other phenomena such as the energy gap in a superconductor below its transition temperature.

Raman spectroscopy: Lower temperatures result in narrower lines associated with the observed Raman excitations.

Photoluminescence: At low temperatures, spectral features are sharper and more intense, thereby increasing the amount of information available.