EBSD Microstructural analysis

EBSD - Electron Backscatter Diffraction -  analysis is a very powerful tool for microstructural characterisation. It identifies:

  • Crystal orientation
  • Grain size
  • Global and local texture
  • Recrystallise/deformed fractions
  • Substructure analysis
  • Strain analysis
  • Grain boundary characterisation
  • CSL boundary distribution
  • Slip system activity
  • Phase identification, distribution and transformations
  • Fracture analysis...

AZtec combines the speed and sensitivity of Nordlys EBSD detectors with the superior analytical performance of AZtecHKL software to create a powerful and versatile tool for Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD) analysis.

The image above is a TKD IPF map of strained Cu. Step size is a just 4 nm. Courtesy: Saritha Samudrala and Kevin Hemker.

EBSD Tutorial

EBSD Explained

EBSD Explained is a 24 page tutorial that not only gives newcomers a solid foundation in the underlining science of the subject, but also shows how the theory is applied in practice to get reliable and accurate EBSD results. 

If you run courses on EBSD analysis please contact your local sales team for free copies of the booklet.

PDF 9.98MB

Recent EBSD Application Notes

EBSD Characterisation of high-strength lightweight steel

Understanding microstructure is fundamental to producing steels with specific mechanical properties for automotive applications. The integration of EBSD & EDS is a powerful microanalytical solution for monitoring microstructure, which aids the understanding of the relationship between materials processing, microstructure and performance...

PDF 18.29MB
AZtec Reclassify: Discriminating phases in steels

Austenite, ferrite, martensite and bainite are common phases in different steel alloys and the relative proportions of these different phases impact how the steel will behave in different regimes. Distinguishing martensite, bainite and ferrite is a challenge as the crystal structure of these three phases is essentially the same...

PDF 4.83MB
Grain characterisation of a steel wire by EBSD

EBSD is the ideal technique for determining grain size, here we report on the application to a steel wire.

PDF 2.80MB
Addressing pseudo-symmetric mis-indexing

This application note describes an application of AZtec Refined Accuracy in solving pseudosymmetry problems in gamma-TiAl.

PDF 8.19MB
Discriminating compounds with similar crystal structures

This application note illustrates the application of AZtec Synergy-TruPhase solution to accurate identifying critical phases in an alloy during EBSD mapping, even if different phases have very similar crystal structure.  Phase identification of this type is essential in a number of industries, typically where discriminating second phase particles or precipitates is important in understanding materials behaviour.

PDF 1.83MB
Colour Orientation Imaging

Microstructure imaging using Forescatter diodes (FSD) on the EBSD detector helps to highlight regions of interest for further investigation during an EBSD analysis. Traditionally, these images were presented in greyscale, but, by adding colour and mixing images from three diodes, a lot more insights can be gained. This note gives examples.

PDF 5.60MB
Grain Size Characterisation of a Steel Sample

Grain size is an important characteristic used in understanding the development, engineering and potential failure of steels. EBSD is an ideal technique for determining grain size, it offers microstructural characterisation including grain size, grain boundary characterisation and texture quantification. In this example, a galvanized steel wire is examined using AZtecHKL.

PDF 11.86MB
Determining optimum sample thickness for TKD using AZtec

This application note discusses the effect of sample thickness and density on TKD results.

PDF 7.75MB
AZtec Grain Analysis

This application note covers two examples: Grain characterisation through recovery and recrystallization of a folded Al alloy, and Grain size variation through a spot welded steel.

PDF 3.38MB
Integrating EBSD and magnetic susceptibility data

In this note, the authors demonstrate the robustness of using grain shape data obtained on the basis of crystallographic information from EBSD analysis to quantify shape preferred orientation (SPO) and strain in XZ section of deformed quartzite.

PDF 2.25MB
TKD Analysis in AZtec

The TKD technique has been proven to enable spatial resolutions better than 10 nm.  This technique is ideal for routine EBSD characterisation of both nanostructured and highly deformed samples.

This application note describes some of the challenges when using TKD and how application of the AZtec EBSD system overcomes them.

PDF 1.91MB
Strain analysis with AZtec EBSD

Strain in a material’s microstructure has a significant influence on its properties and behaviour. Therefore, characterising microstructural strain is now of increasing interest in engineering materials. The Oxford Instruments’ AZtec EBSD system is ideal for measuring strain on the micro- and nano- scale as it includes extensive functionality to examine and understand the state of strain in materials.

This technical note covers aspects of strain analysis by AZtec: from the importance of the quality of the initial Kikuchi pattern collection, to the application of a wide-ranging, comprehensive set of postacquisition data analysis tools specifically designed to study strain, including third party analysis and strain visualisation tools, such as BLG Crosscourt.

PDF 10.29MB
TruPhase: Solving phases with similar crystal structures but different chemistry

EBSD identifies crystalline phases on the basis of their particular crystallographic characteristics and allows the orientation of the mineral grains within a sample to be determined. However, it has traditionally been a challenge to differentiate between phases with very similar crystal structures.

AZtec TruPhase enables phases with very similar crystal structures to be differentiated by simultaneously collecting EBSD and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) data.

PDF 5.17MB

Previous years application notes (Expand the menu bar 'EBSD Application Notes')

Products In This Group

EBSD Software AZtecHKL

EBSD Software AZtecHKL

AZtecHKL EBSD software is is a very powerful tool for microstructural characterisation in the SEM or FIB.

EBSD Detector NordlysMax3

EBSD Detector NordlysMax3

NordlysMax3 is the World’s fastest EBSD detector. Collect, index and display data in real-time at 1580 points per second - even during simultaneous EDS acquisition!

EBSD Detector - NordlysNano

EBSD Detector - NordlysNano

Either Nordlys detector delivers world-leading EBSD performance over all application regimes. NordlysNano delivers the best sensitivity and achieves the highest spatial resolution.

EBSD Post-processing Software

EBSD Post-processing Software

EBSD Post-processing Software: orientation mapping, pole and inverse pole figures, ODF and MODF calculation and display, phase creation...



AZtecSynergy enables simultaneous EBSD & EDS acquisition and analysis in real-time.

3D EBSD: AZtec3D

3D EBSD: AZtec3D

Explore a 3rd dimension of EBSD with this powerful 3D EBSD solution. It combines EBSD software with the syncronised milling capabilities of a FIB-SEM.