EBSD software - AZtecHKLThe most powerful EBSD software available, AZtecHKL combines speed and accuracy of results for routine analysis, with the flexibility and power required for applications that push the frontiers of EBSD.

For the expert, AZtecHKL contains innovative technology that delivers unparalleled accuracy and flexibility when working at the frontiers of EBSD. For everyday applications, the guided workflow leads through data acquisition and analysis, so achieving high quality EBSD results becomes routine.

EBSD and TKD analysis can be integrated with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) through AZtecSynergy. This enables microstructural and compositional datat to be analysed, interrogated and interpreted interactively. AZtecSynergy is the ultimate materials characterisation system.

AZtecHKL at a glance
 

  • Advanced EBSD software with data acquisition and analysis - all in real-time
  • Unleashes the potential of the latest generation of EBSD detectors, NordlysMax2 (optimised for high-speed) and NordlysNano (optimised for sensitivity)
  • Seamless, simultaneous EBSD and EDS acquisition, AZtecSynergy
  • Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD), sometimes referred to as t-EBSD, capability as standard

AZtecHKL Overview

EBSD software AZtecHKLUnmatched in breadth and accuracy, AZtecHKL is a must for anyone serious about EBSD analysis...

AZtec couples Oxford Instruments’ understanding of real customer needs for routine EBSD analysis, with the flexibility and power required for applications that push the frontiers of EBSD.

Developed by the market leader with global customer support and over 40 years experience in nanoanalysis, AZtec meets the ever more challenging requirements of analysis at the nanoscale.

Fast and powerful

  • Unleash the latest generation of Nordlys EBSD detectors for high-speed and high-sensitivity data acquisition
  • Acquire, process and display high-speed data in real-time
  • Interact with your data during acquisition using 64-bit processing power and multitasking software

Easy to use

  • A guided workflow for system set-up and data acquisition ensures that everyone gets the right results every time
  • Intelligent tools, such as automatic background correction, ensure accurate results on all samples

Flexible

  • Experts can adjust settings to solve difficult applications
  • Optimise data post-acquisition using powerful re-analysis tools
  • Present data and results in customisable reports

Innovative

  • Unique Tru-I algorithms achieve the highest number of accurately indexed EBSPs
  • Simultaneous EBSD and EDS analysis, including using EDS data to differentiate similar crystal structures
  • Refined accuracy indexing* delivers an outstanding angular resolution of 0.05˚
  • Powerful tools included as standard, e.g. a TKD optimised indexing routine and modules for advanced data analysis

    * Patent pending

 

Tru-I Indexing Engine

AZtec Tru-I, the EBSD indexing engine, ensures that users collect the best quality patterns and can solve them accurately, reliably and automatically. Pattern collection and solving are performed in real-time.

In this section:

 

Collect the high quality patterns which are essential to obtaining accurate EBSD data.
 

  • AZtec has an optimised system design, for the collection of excellent patterns, even at high speeds or high binning
    • The signal strength and noise are quantified and can be used as a measure of pattern quality

Dynamic background correction enables pattern by pattern contrast optimisation.
 

  • Excellent quality patterns can be achieved from all materials
    •  includes multiphase materials, where the phases can have significantly different atomic numbers
  • Dynamic background correction automatically masks screen imperfections

EBSD analysis and Tru-I Indexing Engine

 

 

Intelligent band detection


AZtec implements an intelligent band detection routine that determines which of the detected bands should be used in the indexing.

  • Intelligent band detection uses both the average intensity of the band and its position in the area of interest
  • Improves the percentage of correctly indexed points, especially for materials exhibiting indistinct bands or where pattern quality is low

Magnetic Field Correction solves distorted patterns

In some applications, high magnetic fields from the SEM lenses distort the electron backscattered diffraction patterns. This distortion curves the Kikuchi bands and shifts the pattern centre, but can be corrected automatically using AZtec.

  • The correction straightens the bands and corrects the pattern centre so patterns can be correctly solved
  • A dipole correction described in Oxford Instruments’ US patent 7442930B2 is applied

EBSD Magnetic Field Correction

Class Indexing

The EBSD indexing routine is critical in achieving accurate results - AZtec uses a new method, Class Indexing.

  • This method is robust and the correct solution can be achieved even if one or more detected band is not included in the list of reference reflectors
  • The system is less sensitive to the operator selecting the number of bands and reflectors

EBSD and Class Indexing

Distinguish similar crystal structures


AZtec correctly indentifies phases with similar crystal structures by comparing band width.

EBSD software and Tru-I Indexing

Refined Accuracy Algorithm
 

A new and innovative ‘Refined Accuracy Algorithm*’extends traditional EBSD analysis to deliver unrivalled accuracy and level of detail...

  • Refines the position of the Kikuchi bands after indexing so the most accurate orientation measurements are achieved
  • Overcomes the well-documented limitations of the Hough transform
  • The Ni patterns (below) illustrate the optimisation benefits:
    • Pattern A shows the initial band detection based on Hough
    • Pattern B shows the band position after refinement by the new method

* patent pending

Refined Accuracy EBSD

AZtec Refined Accuracy delivers:

  • Class leading orientation measurement accuracy ...in real-time
    • enhances boundary characterisation
    • identifies subtle subgrain microstructures
    • optimises fit between acquired pattern and solution

Intelligent EBSD Acquisition Tools

AZtecHKL contains many Intelligent EBSD Acquisition Tools that make data acquisition faster, easier....better.

 

Topics in this section

 

AutoCal
Change acquisition conditions and still collect quality EBSD patterns at the click of a button.
 

  • Collect accurate data routinely under a full range of working distance and detector insertion distance – without recalibrating
  • AutoCal is a sophisticated geometric correction which works seamlessly and automatically to calculate calibration parameters based upon changes in geometry
  • Compensates for changes to the projection parameters resulting from beam movement at low magnification
  • The system is quick and easy to set up, whatever the user experience level


EBSD AuoCal


 

AZtec corrects for changes in acquisition conditions automatically and in real-time

Optimising the system for data acquisition is easier and more automated than ever before

  • Automatic detector exposure
  • Intelligent dynamic background
  • Detector control from within the user interface
  • Change SEM conditions – kV, probe current, magnification, or stage tilt – without recalibrating,
    • and still collect an optimised EBSP which is correctly solved

EBSD advanced acquisition

AutoLock
 

  • AutoLock is an integrated drift correction tool that corrects EBSD and EDS data simultaneously, resulting in the most accurate maps.
  • Unique blend of predictive and reactive drift correction routines
  • Corrects drift on tilted and untilted samples
  • Essential for high magnification nanoscale EBSD

EBSD Drift Correcyion in AZtec

Image Registration

All AZtec acquired images can be used for specimen navigation and relocation at a later date - even on a different microscope.

  • AZtec takes control of the microscope stage and seamlessly relocates to points of interest
  • During a session, any acquired image or map is automatically registered, enabling easy relocation to previously analysed areas
  • Any image can be used for navigation i.e. an EBSD map can be used to navigate to an area of interest
  • Manually registering images enables specific areas of a specimen to be further investigated at a later date, even on another microscope

EBSD Image Registration

 

 

 

Microstructure Imaging

Microstructure Imaging using Forescatter diodes (FSD) highlights regions of interest for further investigation. AZtec, coupled with any Nordlys EBSD detector, is a powerful solution for all EBSD applications.

 

The Nordlys detectors can incorporate up to 6 forescattered detector diodes

  • AZtec enables independent image acquisition from each diode
  • Flexibility to customise and mix any combination of these images
  • Automatic colour FSD highlights details that may be missed by greyscale imaging alone

Orientation contrast image

Microstructure imaging of a gamma-TiAl alloy. The colour highlights zones of interest easily missed in greyscale.
Courtesy EPSRC/Rolls-Royce.

Microstructure imaging demonstration

EBSD Re-analysis

Optimise settings and re-analyse without needing to re-acquire data. With AZtecHKL users can process both post acquisition and offline.



AZtecHKL re-analysis is completely flexible:

  • Optimise solver settings, or add additional phases, and re-analyse the data offline
  • It is not necessary to know all the phases in the sample before acquiring data

 

Re-analysis demonstration

Combined EBSD and EDS - AZtecSynergy

AZtecSynergy combines the innovation and power in AZtecEnergy and AZtecHKL to create the ultimate materials characterisation system with simultaneous EBSD and EDS analyses...  

EDS and EBSD are integrated in a single interface with no compromise on functionality or productivity
 

  • View EDS and EBSD data simultaneously at up to 870 points per second
  • View and optimise the acquisition parameters for both detectors from a single window
  • Unknown phases can be identified from the stored patterns and spectra once an EBSD / EDS data set is collected

Combined EBSD and EDS - AZtecSynergy


Phase ID
Simultaneously collect the EDS spectrum and EBSD pattern from a single point on the sample, for accurate phase identification.

 

  • Powerful and fast phase search to identify candidate phases based on chemical information
  • Accurately determine the phase from a list of candidate phases, using Tru-I algorithms
  • Save spectra and EBSD patterns with reference image

AZtecSynergy and identification of an unknown phase

Integrated EBSD and EDS mapping
AZtecSynergy provides a true and complete characterisation of the sample in real-time.
 

  • Easy to use, with no complex switching between techniques
  • A single interface is used for data collection
  • Use EBSD map as a reference image for EDS collection
  • Stored data can be interrogated offline

AZtecSynergy is optimised so there’s no loss in performance when the EBSD and EDS data are collected simultaneously.
 

  • Unleash the power of the X-MaxN SDD and Nordlys EBSD detectors
  • View ALL of the data in real-time
    • EBSD patterns are indexed as acquired to create orientation and phase maps together with element maps
    • Change EDS parameters or EBSD parameters and see the impact on the results immediately
  • View and report EDS and EBSD maps simultaneously

Combined EBSD and EDS analysis

EBSD Large Area Mapping

AZtec Large Area Mapping enables the unattended collection of high resolution data (images with simultaneous EBSD and EDS maps) from large specimen areas.

  • A set up wizard guides users through the process, making Large Area Map acquisition routine
  • Designed for tilted EBSD geometry to ensure that sample focus is maintained during acquisition
  • Automatic image alignment during acquisition ensures a seamless LAM dataset both before and after montaging
  • Acquire up to 1500 fields at 8K image resolution and 4K EBSD map resolution to create an image dataset of 96 billion pixels and an EBSD dataset of 24 billion pixels
  • Interactive both during and after acquisition: view all the data in the large image and zoom into the fine detail
  • A single montaged data set (up to 64 Million datapoints in size) can be interrogated in AZtec as a standard Site of Interest to extract:
    • X-ray maps, EDS layer maps, Autophase maps and spectra
    • IPF, Euler and phase maps, and individual EBSPs

 

Large Area Mapping

 

Large Area Mapping

 

Demonstration

TKD (Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction) analysis (t-EBSD)

t-EBSD AnalysisTKD (Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction, sometimes referred to as t-EBSD), used for the collection of EBSD data in transmission mode in the SEM, is increasingly applied for materials characterisation at the
nanoscale.

 

Despite significant technological developments in recent years, the conventional EBSD technique is still limited by the pattern source volume to resolutions in the order of 25-100 nm. This is insufficient to measure accurately truly nanostructured materials (with mean grain sizes below 100 nm).

A new approach to SEM-based diffraction has emerged. This uses an electron-transparent sample coupled with conventional EBSD hardware and software. This technique, referred to as transmission EBSD (t-EBSD: Keller and Geiss, 2012) or SEM Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD: Trimby, 2012) has been proven to enable spatial resolutions better than 10nm. 

TKD advantages
 

  • Spatial resolution better than 10 nm
  • Ideal for the routine characterisation of nanostructured material
  • EBSD analysis of highly deformed samples

AZtec is the system of choice for TKD analysis. It includes an optimised TKD mode as standard for acquiring the most accurate maps - even at the nanometre scale. EBSPs collected in transmission mode have a gnomonic distortion and this innovative technology detects the bands in these patterns more accurately, ultimately delivering a higher hit rate.

You can download TKD application notes below.

TKD Application notes

Determining optimum sample thickness for TKD using AZtec

This application note discusses the effect of sample thickness and density on TKD results.

PDF 7.75MB
TKD Analysis in AZtec

This application note describes some of the challenges when using TKD and how application of the AZtec EBSD system overcomes them.

PDF 1.91MB
TKD Application note

Improving the spatial resolution of EBSD in the SEM by TKD

PDF 624KB

TKD Sample Holder

A new Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction sample holder is available from Oxford Instruments. It is designed to hold thin (TEM) samples at a geometry so transmitted kikuchi patterns can be collected on the screen of the EBSD detector. 

  • Can be used on a range of SEM types
  • Easy to use, and eases the locating and holding of delicate thin samples:
    • The fixing screws do not need to be removed when changing or loading samples
    • The screws are loosened and the top plate (which holds the sample in position) can be lifted and slid back out of the way
    • When the sample is located the top plate is replaced and the screws tightened
    • There is a recessed section in the lower plate so that the sample can be easily positioned
  • The entire top plate can be inverted, should the sample be mounted upside down
  • In addition, the plate can be mounted for conventional EBSD
  • The sample holder includes a beam stop to prevent the beam which passes through the thin sample being reflected back up onto the EBSD screen, and therefore interfering with the EBSP

TKD Holder

EBSD Application Notes

EBSD Application Notes (2015)

EBSD Characterisation of high-strength lightweight steel

Understanding microstructure is fundamental to producing steels with specific mechanical properties for automotive applications. The integration of EBSD & EDS is a powerful microanalytical solution for monitoring microstructure, which aids the understanding of the relationship between materials processing, microstructure and performance...

PDF 18.29MB
AZtec Reclassify: Discriminating phases in steels

Austenite, ferrite, martensite and bainite are common phases in different steel alloys and the relative proportions of these different phases impact how the steel will behave in different regimes. Distinguishing martensite, bainite and ferrite is a challenge as the crystal structure of these three phases is essentially the same...

PDF 4.83MB
Grain characterisation of a steel wire by EBSD

EBSD is the ideal technique for determining grain size, here we report on the application to a steel wire.

PDF 2.80MB
Addressing pseudo-symmetric mis-indexing

This application note describes an application of AZtec Refined Accuracy in solving pseudosymmetry problems in gamma-TiAl.

PDF 8.19MB
Discriminating compounds with similar crystal structures

This application note illustrates the application of AZtec Synergy-TruPhase solution to accurate identifying critical phases in an alloy during EBSD mapping, even if different phases have very similar crystal structure.  Phase identification of this type is essential in a number of industries, typically where discriminating second phase particles or precipitates is important in understanding materials behaviour.

PDF 1.83MB
Colour Orientation Imaging

Microstructure imaging using Forescatter diodes (FSD) on the EBSD detector helps to highlight regions of interest for further investigation during an EBSD analysis. Traditionally, these images were presented in greyscale, but, by adding colour and mixing images from three diodes, a lot more insights can be gained. This note gives examples.

PDF 5.60MB
Grain Size Characterisation of a Steel Sample

Grain size is an important characteristic used in understanding the development, engineering and potential failure of steels. EBSD is an ideal technique for determining grain size, it offers microstructural characterisation including grain size, grain boundary characterisation and texture quantification. In this example, a galvanized steel wire is examined using AZtecHKL.

PDF 11.86MB
Determining optimum sample thickness for TKD using AZtec

This application note discusses the effect of sample thickness and density on TKD results.

PDF 7.75MB
AZtec Grain Analysis

This application note covers two examples: Grain characterisation through recovery and recrystallization of a folded Al alloy, and Grain size variation through a spot welded steel.

PDF 3.38MB
Integrating EBSD and magnetic susceptibility data

In this note, the authors demonstrate the robustness of using grain shape data obtained on the basis of crystallographic information from EBSD analysis to quantify shape preferred orientation (SPO) and strain in XZ section of deformed quartzite.

PDF 2.25MB
TKD Analysis in AZtec

The TKD technique has been proven to enable spatial resolutions better than 10 nm.  This technique is ideal for routine EBSD characterisation of both nanostructured and highly deformed samples.

This application note describes some of the challenges when using TKD and how application of the AZtec EBSD system overcomes them.

PDF 1.91MB
Strain analysis with AZtec EBSD

Strain in a material’s microstructure has a significant influence on its properties and behaviour. Therefore, characterising microstructural strain is now of increasing interest in engineering materials. The Oxford Instruments’ AZtec EBSD system is ideal for measuring strain on the micro- and nano- scale as it includes extensive functionality to examine and understand the state of strain in materials.

This technical note covers aspects of strain analysis by AZtec: from the importance of the quality of the initial Kikuchi pattern collection, to the application of a wide-ranging, comprehensive set of postacquisition data analysis tools specifically designed to study strain, including third party analysis and strain visualisation tools, such as BLG Crosscourt.

PDF 10.29MB
TruPhase: Solving phases with similar crystal structures but different chemistry

EBSD identifies crystalline phases on the basis of their particular crystallographic characteristics and allows the orientation of the mineral grains within a sample to be determined. However, it has traditionally been a challenge to differentiate between phases with very similar crystal structures.

AZtec TruPhase enables phases with very similar crystal structures to be differentiated by simultaneously collecting EBSD and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) data.

PDF 5.17MB

EBSD Application Notes (2014)

Large area EBSD mapping of quartz-rich mylonites

Large-area EBSD mapping allows large quantities of information relating to microstructural deformation to be obtained, enabling the history and evolution of a geological sample to be revealed. This study investigates the microstructural response of quartz layers to flow around rigid secondary garnet porphyroclasts during ductile deformation.

PDF 6.76MB
Microcharacterisation of CIGS devices by EBSD and EDS

An important part of the research and development of thin-film solar cells is the characterisation of microstructural and compositional properties of the functional layers. For this purpose, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) represent techniques which exhibit spatial resolutions on the nanometer scale but can be, at the same time, applied on large areas of several square millimeters. The application of EDS and EBSD is demonstrated on this example of thin-film solar cells with Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers.

PDF 2.50MB
In-Situ EBSD: Tensile and Heating
In-situ experiments in the SEM combined with crystallographic data gathered using EBSD can provide insight into themechanisms operating during deformation and recrystallisation of materials. In order to conduct such experiments suitable EBSD systems are required that can handle infra red radiation emitted from hot samples and in-situ stages that can be inserted intostandard scanning electron microscope chambers.
PDF 9MB
In-Situ EBSD: Bent Al Alloy

This study presents changes in microstructure characterised by EBSD in the tensile region of a bent Al alloy 6063 sheet during in-situ isochronal heating. It has been shown that the bending process generates both a texture and strain gradient across the bent region [1,2]. This study takes this into account in order to follow the recovery and recrystallisation driven by strain gradient.
 

PDF 6.86MB
EBSD Analysis of Industrial Materials

This note illustrates how Broad Beam Ion Milling has been used to produce improved quality of EBSD data from specimen such as aluminium, zirconium, magnesium, titanium alloys and galvanized zinc coatings - which are usually difficult to prepare by mechanical routes only.

PDF 6.22MB
EBSD Analysis of Large Sample Areas

AZtec Large Area Mapping has the capability to collect data with great detail over large sample areas at the fastest speeds. It is then possible to apply single field analysis tools to the large area data sets.  This application note will demonstrate the capability of large area mapping using two data sets to visualise the change in microstructure over the complete sample.

PDF 4.69MB

EBSD Application Notes (2013)

In-situ heating of an aluminium alloy

This technical note highlights the performance of the NordlysMax2 detector in combination with AZtecHKL software to acquire simultaneous EBSD/EDS data from tungsten heavy alloy (WHA). The highest acquisition speed achieved was 870Hz with a hit rate >98% at 20kV acceleration voltage and 16.6nA probe current.

PDF 449KB
TKD Analysis (aka t-EBSD)

Despite significant technological developments in recent years, the EBSD technique is still limited by the pattern source volume to resolutions in the order of 25-100nm; this is insufficient to measure accurately truly nanostructured materials (with mean grain sizes below 100nm). A new approach to SEM-based diffraction has emerged, namely using an electron transparent sample coupled with conventional EBSD hardware and software. This technique, referred to as transmission EBSD (t-EBSD: Keller and Geiss, 2012) or SEM Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD) has been proven to enable spatial resolutions better than 10nm, and is ideal for routine EBSD characterisation of both nanostructured and highly deformed samples.

PDF 612KB
Nanomanipulation and EBSD analysis of Au wire

As the trend towards miniaturisation and nanotechnology increases in microelectronic devices, a key growing requirement is the microstructural understanding of materials at the nanoscales to produce reliable products. This application note describes a method of combining Oxford Instrument’s OmniProbe tools and AZtec EBSD system for the manipulation and analysis of a 5μm diameter gold microelectronic wire sample.

PDF 5.43MB
EBSD and Microelectronics

This application note describes the use of AZtecHKL with a Nordlys EBSD detector in the characterisation of Through-Silicon Vias, or TSV.

PDF 1.60MB
Zirconium Hydride Analysis by EBSD

Zirconium alloys are used in nuclear reactors owing to their low capture cross-section for thermal neutrons and good mechanical and corrosion properties. However, they suffer from delayed hydrogen cracking (DHC) due to formation of hydride particles. This study shows how EBSD can be used to characterise hydrides in terms of their orientation relationship with the matrix and internal structure and local misorientation.

PDF 570KB
EBSD and EDS analysis of high entropy alloys

A high entropy alloy has been developed from an equiatomic AlCoCrCuFeNi alloy. Due to its promising properties, such as high corrosion and oxidation resistance and high thermal stability, it is a candidate for various applications at elevated temperature as, e.g., furnace parts, tools and moulds. The exploration of new metallic systems for high temperature applications is an important challenge in today’s materials science.

However, an increase of the strength of this alloy is desirable and requires further optimization. In order to improve these mechanical properties, knowledge of the microstructure is necessary. Therefore, Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33 high entropy alloy has been studied by means of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

PDF 4.02MB
EBSD Sample Preparation

Specimen preparation for EBSD is critical, because the diffracted electrons escape from within only a few tens of nanometres of the specimen surface. However, sample preparation requirements can typically be achieved following some simple recipes. Some broad guidelines are given here.

PDF 6.03MB
EBSD Analysis of a Crept Nickel Alloy

Microanalysis is a powerful tool in understanding potential failure mechanisms and potential life time of many materials. In this example, the microstructure and damage distribution following creep deformation of a nickel superalloy is studied using electron
backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS).

PDF 4.22MB
Orientation Imaging

The Nordlys EBSD detector has the capability to be fitted with up to six forescattered detectors.This application note discusses their application to orientation imaging...

PDF 678KB

Earlier Application Notes
 

EBSD Application Note - Tru-IAZtec Tru- I : The Most Accurate EBSD Results
Band detection and indexing are at the heart of good EBSD analysis. In this technical bulletin we illustrate how improving both has significantly enhanced the performance of the AZtec EBSD solution.
 

EBSD Application Note - Combined EBSD & EDSThe fastest simultaneous collection of high quality EBSD and EDS maps
Oxford Instruments’ AZtecSynergy system, coupled with a NordlysMax2 detector, acquires simultaneous EBSD-EDS data from a dual phase material at high speeds and with consistently high hit rates. The EBSD and EDS data is processed as acquired and the maps are viewed in real time. This technical note will demonstrate simultaneous data acquisition at these fastest speeds.

EBSD Application Note

Simultaneous EBSD/EDS Data Acquisition from WHA
This technical note highlights the performance of the NordlysMax2 detector in combination with AZtecHKL software to acquire simultaneous EBSD/EDS data from tungsten heavy alloy (WHA). The highest acquisition speed achieved was 870Hz with a hit rate >98% at 20kV acceleration voltage and 16.6nA probe current.

EBSD Application NoteAZtecHKL and the Tru-I Analysis Engine
This application note demonstrates the power of the Tru-I solver engine to discriminate between phases with very similar lattice parameters. Using the band width in the solving increases the capability of AZtecHKL to discriminate these phases. On other systems this would only be possible by combining EBSD and EDS.

AZEBSD Application NotetecSynergy
AZtecSynergy simultaneously acquires EBSD-EDS data from a dual phase material at high speeds and with consistently high hit rates. The EBSD and EDS data is acquired, processed and the maps are viewed in real time.A tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) material containing tungsten particles in a Nickel rich matrix was mounted in bakelite and analysed...

3D EBSD Application nate3D EBSD Applications
Combining a SEM with a scanning focused ion beam (FIB) such as in a Carl Zeiss CrossBeam instrument, EBSD can be extended to a fully three dimensional (3D) analytical technique. This note covers a thin film application.
 

EBSD Application NotePhase Identification in a High Temperature Steel
A high temperature steel containing second phase particles is used as an example material, this sample contains phases which are traditionally very difficult to differentiate using EBSD.

 

EBSD Application Note - Low kV Analysis

Low kV EBSD Analysis 2
EBSD analysis of the Nacre Structure of a Pearl (Hyriopsis cumingii) with 100 nm Resolution – Busting a Myth

 

EBSD Analysis - Low kVLow kV EBSD Analysis 1
The resolution of EBSD can be significantly enhanced at low acceleration voltages. This application note presents EBSD results acquired at low acceleration voltages to characterise the two calcite and nacre layers in Mytilus edulis shells.

EBSD Posters

Some of the posters we present at conferences are available for download here. Those with crop marks in the corners are high quality and can be given to your printer for production.

Most are A0 size but the same file can be easly resized for printing at any smaller size.

EBSD Posters

An EBSD Study of Texture Variation along Pilger Reduced Titanium Alloy Tubes

This study investigates the changes in radial micro-texture via Kearn’s f-factors during single cold pilger reduction of a titanium Ti-3-2.5 alloy as a result of strain path changes from tooling modifications. EBSD results confirm that the texture intensity as well as the radial f-factors can be increased by modifications of pilgering tooling. In addition a switch between the secondary prism planes which lie normal to the pilger direction in the starting tube to primary prism planes after pilgering has been observed.

PDF 1.11MB
Accuracy of EBSD orientation measurement

The precision and accuracy of routine EBSD measurements is constrained by many factors, while the angular resolution of standard EBSD systems is often quoted from 0.5° – 0.7° (Humphreys 2001).Fundamental to the EBSD technique is the method of identifying and locating the Kikuchi bands, hence the method chosen is one of the main factors determining the measurement accuracy and precision.

Conventional, fast band detection routines use a 2-D Hough transform (only). The limitations of the 2-D Hough transform for band detection are well documented (e.g. Maurice & Fortunier 2008). Up to a limit, accuracy and precision can be improved by increasing the Hough resolution. However, this results in a very large (and generally unacceptable) increase in computation time. Ultimately, accuracy is limited by a systematic error in applying the 2-D Hough to Kikuchi band detection: Kikuchi bands are hyperbolic, not straight. Band detection routines which rely solely on the 2-D Hough will be in error – a refinement to the detection routine is required. A new method (patent pending) is described.

PDF 2.06MB
Advanced EBSD Preparation

Excellent sample preparation is the key to successful materials characterisation, especially using EBSD, as any residual surface deformation impairs Kikuchi pattern formation. Residual deformation is difficult to minimise under normal mechanical polishing in many applications. This poster shows how Broad Beam Ion Milling has been used to produce excellent samples from zirconium and magnesium alloys and galvanized zinc coatings, usually difficult to prepare by mechanical routes only.

PDF 9.04MB
EBSD Analysis of Large Sample Areas

In material characterisation it is very important to collect statistically representative datasets. The interpretation of data collected from small sample areas may not fully describe the sample.

The requirement to collect EBSD data over large sample areas is not new, but as EBSD and EDS technology improves, it is possible to acquire ever larger datasets from larger areas and at higher speeds, while maintaining the highest quality results. Recent development for large area mapping within the AZtec® microanalysis suite enables the unattended collection of high resolution data (images with simultaneous EBSD and EDS maps) from large specimen areas.

PDF 12.40MB
EBSD and TKD Investigations using FIB

The use of Focussed Ion Beam (FIB) to produce ‘lift out’ lamellae and to dissect small particles is proving to be very useful for SEM investigation using EDS, EBSD and Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD). Previously the production of lift out samples using FIB was almost universally applied to the production of TEM samples. Using a nanomanipulator, it is possible to create thin sections or precision sectioned particles, and then to perform EDS, EBSD or TKD analysis directly on the sections in the SEM, either attached to support grids or ‘on tip’.

PDF 5.74MB
Evolution of EBSD Patterns during Sample Preparation

Successful EBSD work for characterizing and quantifying microstructures requires good metallographic preparation procedures. This study is an attempt to illustrate how EBSD patterns evolve through the various metallographic preparation steps using duplex steel and alumina samples as examples.

PDF 25.14MB

EBSD Videos (Demos and applications)

Videos: double click on video, or bottom right corner, for full screen

Large Area Mapping

Compilation of EBSD data from an In-situ Tensile plus Heating Experiment


This video shows a compilation of a series of pattern quality, local mis-orientation and inverse pole figure coloured EBSD maps, during in-situ tensile strain followed by isochronal heating of an Al 0.1%Mg alloy. Corresponding changes in the grain orientations in the mapped area are shown in a compilation of {100}, {110} and {111} pole figures.
 

Accurate EBSD Data Collection on SEMs with Immersion Lens

 

Illustrating the power and speed of NordlysMax2 with AZtec


 

Intelligent EBSD using AZtec AutoCal

 

Forescatter Detector Control and Imaging

 

Re-analysis and Phase Identification

 

 

 

 

Learn about EBSD - www.ebsd.com

EDSB Tutorial siteTo learn more about EBSD
 

  • What is EBSD?
  • EBSD Theory
  • Sample preparation
  • Data acquisition principles
  • EBSD Analysis
  • Applications
  • Further reading
  • ...

please visit our educational site www.ebsd.com.
 

(www.ebsd.cn in China)

EBSD System Brochure - AZtec

EBSD System Brochure - AZtecHKL

This 16 page brochure illustrates why AZtec is the leading EBSD analysis platform on the market. Covers both hardware and software.

PDF 2.92MB
High speed EBSD Detector NordlysMax3

The World’s fastest EBSD detector, NordlysMax3 is collects, indexes and
displays data in real-time at 1580 points per second - even during simultaneous EDS analysis!

PDF 3.53MB

EBSD Tutorial

EBSD Explained

EBSD Explained is a 24 page tutorial that not only gives newcomers a solid foundation in the underlining science of the subject, but also shows how the theory is applied in practice to get reliable and accurate EBSD results. 

If you run courses on EBSD analysis please contact your local sales team for free copies of the booklet.

PDF 9.98MB

Recent EBSD Application Notes

EBSD Characterisation of high-strength lightweight steel

Understanding microstructure is fundamental to producing steels with specific mechanical properties for automotive applications. The integration of EBSD & EDS is a powerful microanalytical solution for monitoring microstructure, which aids the understanding of the relationship between materials processing, microstructure and performance...

PDF 18.29MB
AZtec Reclassify: Discriminating phases in steels

Austenite, ferrite, martensite and bainite are common phases in different steel alloys and the relative proportions of these different phases impact how the steel will behave in different regimes. Distinguishing martensite, bainite and ferrite is a challenge as the crystal structure of these three phases is essentially the same...

PDF 4.83MB
Grain characterisation of a steel wire by EBSD

EBSD is the ideal technique for determining grain size, here we report on the application to a steel wire.

PDF 2.80MB
Addressing pseudo-symmetric mis-indexing

This application note describes an application of AZtec Refined Accuracy in solving pseudosymmetry problems in gamma-TiAl.

PDF 8.19MB
Discriminating compounds with similar crystal structures

This application note illustrates the application of AZtec Synergy-TruPhase solution to accurate identifying critical phases in an alloy during EBSD mapping, even if different phases have very similar crystal structure.  Phase identification of this type is essential in a number of industries, typically where discriminating second phase particles or precipitates is important in understanding materials behaviour.

PDF 1.83MB
Colour Orientation Imaging

Microstructure imaging using Forescatter diodes (FSD) on the EBSD detector helps to highlight regions of interest for further investigation during an EBSD analysis. Traditionally, these images were presented in greyscale, but, by adding colour and mixing images from three diodes, a lot more insights can be gained. This note gives examples.

PDF 5.60MB
Grain Size Characterisation of a Steel Sample

Grain size is an important characteristic used in understanding the development, engineering and potential failure of steels. EBSD is an ideal technique for determining grain size, it offers microstructural characterisation including grain size, grain boundary characterisation and texture quantification. In this example, a galvanized steel wire is examined using AZtecHKL.

PDF 11.86MB
Determining optimum sample thickness for TKD using AZtec

This application note discusses the effect of sample thickness and density on TKD results.

PDF 7.75MB
AZtec Grain Analysis

This application note covers two examples: Grain characterisation through recovery and recrystallization of a folded Al alloy, and Grain size variation through a spot welded steel.

PDF 3.38MB
Integrating EBSD and magnetic susceptibility data

In this note, the authors demonstrate the robustness of using grain shape data obtained on the basis of crystallographic information from EBSD analysis to quantify shape preferred orientation (SPO) and strain in XZ section of deformed quartzite.

PDF 2.25MB
TKD Analysis in AZtec

The TKD technique has been proven to enable spatial resolutions better than 10 nm.  This technique is ideal for routine EBSD characterisation of both nanostructured and highly deformed samples.

This application note describes some of the challenges when using TKD and how application of the AZtec EBSD system overcomes them.

PDF 1.91MB
Strain analysis with AZtec EBSD

Strain in a material’s microstructure has a significant influence on its properties and behaviour. Therefore, characterising microstructural strain is now of increasing interest in engineering materials. The Oxford Instruments’ AZtec EBSD system is ideal for measuring strain on the micro- and nano- scale as it includes extensive functionality to examine and understand the state of strain in materials.

This technical note covers aspects of strain analysis by AZtec: from the importance of the quality of the initial Kikuchi pattern collection, to the application of a wide-ranging, comprehensive set of postacquisition data analysis tools specifically designed to study strain, including third party analysis and strain visualisation tools, such as BLG Crosscourt.

PDF 10.29MB
TruPhase: Solving phases with similar crystal structures but different chemistry

EBSD identifies crystalline phases on the basis of their particular crystallographic characteristics and allows the orientation of the mineral grains within a sample to be determined. However, it has traditionally been a challenge to differentiate between phases with very similar crystal structures.

AZtec TruPhase enables phases with very similar crystal structures to be differentiated by simultaneously collecting EBSD and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) data.

PDF 5.17MB

Related Products

EBSD Detector - NordlysNano

EBSD Detector - NordlysNano

Either Nordlys detector delivers world-leading EBSD performance over all application regimes. NordlysNano delivers the best sensitivity and achieves the highest spatial resolution.

EBSD Post-processing Software

EBSD Post-processing Software

EBSD Post-processing Software: orientation mapping, pole and inverse pole figures, ODF and MODF calculation and display, phase creation...

Product Support

Maintenance and Support

Maintenance and Support

Oxford Instruments takes pride in the support and service that we provide. Whether your requirements are general or specific, regional or national, local or international, we can tailor a package specifically for you.

EBSD Training Courses

EBSD Training Courses

Understanding the EBSD technique. Selecting suitable operating conditions. Using AZtec and Channel 5 to acquire and process maps.