EBSD Application Notes (2015)

EBSD Characterisation of high-strength lightweight steel

Understanding microstructure is fundamental to producing steels with specific mechanical properties for automotive applications. The integration of EBSD & EDS is a powerful microanalytical solution for monitoring microstructure, which aids the understanding of the relationship between materials processing, microstructure and performance...

PDF 18.29MB
AZtec Reclassify: Discriminating phases in steels

Austenite, ferrite, martensite and bainite are common phases in different steel alloys and the relative proportions of these different phases impact how the steel will behave in different regimes. Distinguishing martensite, bainite and ferrite is a challenge as the crystal structure of these three phases is essentially the same...

PDF 4.83MB
Grain characterisation of a steel wire by EBSD

EBSD is the ideal technique for determining grain size, here we report on the application to a steel wire.

PDF 2.80MB
Addressing pseudo-symmetric mis-indexing

This application note describes an application of AZtec Refined Accuracy in solving pseudosymmetry problems in gamma-TiAl.

PDF 8.19MB
Discriminating compounds with similar crystal structures

This application note illustrates the application of AZtec Synergy-TruPhase solution to accurate identifying critical phases in an alloy during EBSD mapping, even if different phases have very similar crystal structure.  Phase identification of this type is essential in a number of industries, typically where discriminating second phase particles or precipitates is important in understanding materials behaviour.

PDF 1.83MB
Colour Orientation Imaging

Microstructure imaging using Forescatter diodes (FSD) on the EBSD detector helps to highlight regions of interest for further investigation during an EBSD analysis. Traditionally, these images were presented in greyscale, but, by adding colour and mixing images from three diodes, a lot more insights can be gained. This note gives examples.

PDF 5.60MB
Grain Size Characterisation of a Steel Sample

Grain size is an important characteristic used in understanding the development, engineering and potential failure of steels. EBSD is an ideal technique for determining grain size, it offers microstructural characterisation including grain size, grain boundary characterisation and texture quantification. In this example, a galvanized steel wire is examined using AZtecHKL.

PDF 11.86MB
Determining optimum sample thickness for TKD using AZtec

This application note discusses the effect of sample thickness and density on TKD results.

PDF 7.75MB
AZtec Grain Analysis

This application note covers two examples: Grain characterisation through recovery and recrystallization of a folded Al alloy, and Grain size variation through a spot welded steel.

PDF 3.38MB
Integrating EBSD and magnetic susceptibility data

In this note, the authors demonstrate the robustness of using grain shape data obtained on the basis of crystallographic information from EBSD analysis to quantify shape preferred orientation (SPO) and strain in XZ section of deformed quartzite.

PDF 2.25MB
TKD Analysis in AZtec

The TKD technique has been proven to enable spatial resolutions better than 10 nm.  This technique is ideal for routine EBSD characterisation of both nanostructured and highly deformed samples.

This application note describes some of the challenges when using TKD and how application of the AZtec EBSD system overcomes them.

PDF 1.91MB
Strain analysis with AZtec EBSD

Strain in a material’s microstructure has a significant influence on its properties and behaviour. Therefore, characterising microstructural strain is now of increasing interest in engineering materials. The Oxford Instruments’ AZtec EBSD system is ideal for measuring strain on the micro- and nano- scale as it includes extensive functionality to examine and understand the state of strain in materials.

This technical note covers aspects of strain analysis by AZtec: from the importance of the quality of the initial Kikuchi pattern collection, to the application of a wide-ranging, comprehensive set of postacquisition data analysis tools specifically designed to study strain, including third party analysis and strain visualisation tools, such as BLG Crosscourt.

PDF 10.29MB
TruPhase: Solving phases with similar crystal structures but different chemistry

EBSD identifies crystalline phases on the basis of their particular crystallographic characteristics and allows the orientation of the mineral grains within a sample to be determined. However, it has traditionally been a challenge to differentiate between phases with very similar crystal structures.

AZtec TruPhase enables phases with very similar crystal structures to be differentiated by simultaneously collecting EBSD and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) data.

PDF 5.17MB

EBSD Application Notes (2014)

Large area EBSD mapping of quartz-rich mylonites

Large-area EBSD mapping allows large quantities of information relating to microstructural deformation to be obtained, enabling the history and evolution of a geological sample to be revealed. This study investigates the microstructural response of quartz layers to flow around rigid secondary garnet porphyroclasts during ductile deformation.

PDF 6.76MB
Microcharacterisation of CIGS devices by EBSD and EDS

An important part of the research and development of thin-film solar cells is the characterisation of microstructural and compositional properties of the functional layers. For this purpose, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) represent techniques which exhibit spatial resolutions on the nanometer scale but can be, at the same time, applied on large areas of several square millimeters. The application of EDS and EBSD is demonstrated on this example of thin-film solar cells with Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers.

PDF 2.50MB
In-Situ EBSD: Tensile and Heating

In-situ experiments in the SEM combined with crystallographic data gathered using EBSD can provide insight into themechanisms operating during deformation and recrystallisation of materials. In order to conduct such experiments suitable EBSD systems are required that can handle infra red radiation emitted from hot samples and in-situ stages that can be inserted intostandard scanning electron microscope chambers.

In-Situ EBSD: Bent Al Alloy

This study presents changes in microstructure characterised by EBSD in the tensile region of a bent Al alloy 6063 sheet during in-situ isochronal heating. It has been shown that the bending process generates both a texture and strain gradient across the bent region [1,2]. This study takes this into account in order to follow the recovery and recrystallisation driven by strain gradient.

PDF 6.86MB
EBSD Analysis of Industrial Materials

This note illustrates how Broad Beam Ion Milling has been used to produce improved quality of EBSD data from specimen such as aluminium, zirconium, magnesium, titanium alloys and galvanized zinc coatings - which are usually difficult to prepare by mechanical routes only.

PDF 6.22MB
EBSD Analysis of Large Sample Areas

AZtec Large Area Mapping has the capability to collect data with great detail over large sample areas at the fastest speeds. It is then possible to apply single field analysis tools to the large area data sets.  This application note will demonstrate the capability of large area mapping using two data sets to visualise the change in microstructure over the complete sample.

PDF 4.69MB

EBSD Application Notes (2013)

In-situ heating of an aluminium alloy

This technical note highlights the performance of the NordlysMax2 detector in combination with AZtecHKL software to acquire simultaneous EBSD/EDS data from tungsten heavy alloy (WHA). The highest acquisition speed achieved was 870Hz with a hit rate >98% at 20kV acceleration voltage and 16.6nA probe current.

TKD Analysis (aka t-EBSD)

Despite significant technological developments in recent years, the EBSD technique is still limited by the pattern source volume to resolutions in the order of 25-100nm; this is insufficient to measure accurately truly nanostructured materials (with mean grain sizes below 100nm). A new approach to SEM-based diffraction has emerged, namely using an electron transparent sample coupled with conventional EBSD hardware and software. This technique, referred to as transmission EBSD (t-EBSD: Keller and Geiss, 2012) or SEM Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD) has been proven to enable spatial resolutions better than 10nm, and is ideal for routine EBSD characterisation of both nanostructured and highly deformed samples.

Nanomanipulation and EBSD analysis of Au wire

As the trend towards miniaturisation and nanotechnology increases in microelectronic devices, a key growing requirement is the microstructural understanding of materials at the nanoscales to produce reliable products. This application note describes a method of combining Oxford Instrument’s OmniProbe tools and AZtec EBSD system for the manipulation and analysis of a 5μm diameter gold microelectronic wire sample.

PDF 5.43MB
EBSD and Microelectronics

This application note describes the use of AZtecHKL with a Nordlys EBSD detector in the characterisation of Through-Silicon Vias, or TSV.

PDF 1.60MB
Zirconium Hydride Analysis by EBSD

Zirconium alloys are used in nuclear reactors owing to their low capture cross-section for thermal neutrons and good mechanical and corrosion properties. However, they suffer from delayed hydrogen cracking (DHC) due to formation of hydride particles. This study shows how EBSD can be used to characterise hydrides in terms of their orientation relationship with the matrix and internal structure and local misorientation.

EBSD and EDS analysis of high entropy alloys

A high entropy alloy has been developed from an equiatomic AlCoCrCuFeNi alloy. Due to its promising properties, such as high corrosion and oxidation resistance and high thermal stability, it is a candidate for various applications at elevated temperature as, e.g., furnace parts, tools and moulds. The exploration of new metallic systems for high temperature applications is an important challenge in today’s materials science.

However, an increase of the strength of this alloy is desirable and requires further optimization. In order to improve these mechanical properties, knowledge of the microstructure is necessary. Therefore, Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33 high entropy alloy has been studied by means of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

PDF 4.02MB
EBSD Sample Preparation

Specimen preparation for EBSD is critical, because the diffracted electrons escape from within only a few tens of nanometres of the specimen surface. However, sample preparation requirements can typically be achieved following some simple recipes. Some broad guidelines are given here.

PDF 6.03MB
EBSD Analysis of a Crept Nickel Alloy

Microanalysis is a powerful tool in understanding potential failure mechanisms and potential life time of many materials. In this example, the microstructure and damage distribution following creep deformation of a nickel superalloy is studied using electron
backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS).

PDF 4.22MB
Orientation Imaging

The Nordlys EBSD detector has the capability to be fitted with up to six forescattered detectors.This application note discusses their application to orientation imaging...


Earlier Application Notes

EBSD Application Note - Tru-IAZtec Tru- I : The Most Accurate EBSD Results
Band detection and indexing are at the heart of good EBSD analysis. In this technical bulletin we illustrate how improving both has significantly enhanced the performance of the AZtec EBSD solution.

EBSD Application Note - Combined EBSD & EDSThe fastest simultaneous collection of high quality EBSD and EDS maps
Oxford Instruments’ AZtecSynergy system, coupled with a NordlysMax2 detector, acquires simultaneous EBSD-EDS data from a dual phase material at high speeds and with consistently high hit rates. The EBSD and EDS data is processed as acquired and the maps are viewed in real time. This technical note will demonstrate simultaneous data acquisition at these fastest speeds.

EBSD Application Note

Simultaneous EBSD/EDS Data Acquisition from WHA
This technical note highlights the performance of the NordlysMax2 detector in combination with AZtecHKL software to acquire simultaneous EBSD/EDS data from tungsten heavy alloy (WHA). The highest acquisition speed achieved was 870Hz with a hit rate >98% at 20kV acceleration voltage and 16.6nA probe current.

EBSD Application NoteAZtecHKL and the Tru-I Analysis Engine
This application note demonstrates the power of the Tru-I solver engine to discriminate between phases with very similar lattice parameters. Using the band width in the solving increases the capability of AZtecHKL to discriminate these phases. On other systems this would only be possible by combining EBSD and EDS.

AZEBSD Application NotetecSynergy
AZtecSynergy simultaneously acquires EBSD-EDS data from a dual phase material at high speeds and with consistently high hit rates. The EBSD and EDS data is acquired, processed and the maps are viewed in real time.A tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) material containing tungsten particles in a Nickel rich matrix was mounted in bakelite and analysed...

3D EBSD Application nate3D EBSD Applications
Combining a SEM with a scanning focused ion beam (FIB) such as in a Carl Zeiss CrossBeam instrument, EBSD can be extended to a fully three dimensional (3D) analytical technique. This note covers a thin film application.

EBSD Application NotePhase Identification in a High Temperature Steel
A high temperature steel containing second phase particles is used as an example material, this sample contains phases which are traditionally very difficult to differentiate using EBSD.


EBSD Application Note - Low kV Analysis

Low kV EBSD Analysis 2
EBSD analysis of the Nacre Structure of a Pearl (Hyriopsis cumingii) with 100 nm Resolution – Busting a Myth


EBSD Analysis - Low kVLow kV EBSD Analysis 1
The resolution of EBSD can be significantly enhanced at low acceleration voltages. This application note presents EBSD results acquired at low acceleration voltages to characterise the two calcite and nacre layers in Mytilus edulis shells.

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